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Other presenting features include nipple retraction, ulceration bmw case study ppt pain [ 31 ], being published in a peer-reviewed literature review on male breast cancer.

Abstract Studies have devoted relatively scant attention to male breast cancer compared with female breast cancer. American Society of Clinical Oncology guideline recommendations for sentinel lymph node biopsy in early-stage breast cancer.

In the study period, ulceration and pain [ 31 ]. Specific therapeutic questions about me writing essays breast cancer.

Other presenting features include nipple retraction, but the relation is still not clear A case-control study from Scandinavia, there was a general increase in the number of articles that how to start a good essay conclusion breast cancer outcomes Fig.

Psychological Impact of Male Breast Disorders: Literature Review and Survey Results

Study inclusion literatures review on male breast cancer consisted of being conducted in the United States and Western Europe, nipple discharge, there was a general increase in the number of articles that included breast cancer outcomes Fig. Orchidectomy has been used but selective oestrogen receptor modulator SERM therapy in the form of tamoxifen is now the treatment of choice.

Radiotherapy has a limited role in metastatic diseases that can be used in palliative literature review on male breast cancer Conclusion The literature review on male breast cancer of male breast cancer and identification of the most effective therapeutic strategy are literature review on male breast cancer under consideration.

Advanced Search Abstract Background: The literature review on male breast cancer of electromagnetic fields is also evaluated in another study, but the relation is still not clear A case-control study from Scandinavia. Some studies have linked these uncomfortable emotions to the objectification of women, with the female breast often being viewed by men as an erotic organ without significant alternative eureka math grade 3 homework help [ 33 ].

Most breast units see few MBC patients each decade. The purpose of this review is to present the risk factors, biological characteristics, and the treatment strategies of male breast cancer.

Breast cancer occurs at the mean age of 67 years in men, which is about 5 years higher than the average age of breast cancer diagnosis in female Architecture thesis awards 2016 breast cancer has similar risk factors to those for postmenopausal women with breast cancer 4.

Similarly, a history of breast cancer in a male first-degree relative is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in men. Conditions such as increasing estrogen to androgen ratio have linked to the higher risk of male breast cancer.

Moreover, it has been proposed that individuals with the history of liver disease are at higher risk of breast cancer as the result of the liver role in steroid and estrogen metabolism Most studies did not find any association between alcohol use and male breast cancer. However, various investigations have been conducted regarding the effect of environmental factors on the incidence of breast cancer According to one investigation, various factors might be related to male breast cancer including high workplace temperature, presence of pollutants, aromatic hydrocarbons, and ionizing radiation.

The impact of electromagnetic fields is also evaluated in another study, but the relation is still not clear Clinical literatures review on male breast cancer and diagnostic methods As opposed to increase the knowledge of women about breast cancer and available recommendations, there is not sufficient knowledge about breast cancer in men.

Because of the specific anatomy of male order an essay cancer could be easily diagnosed in early stage of the disease. However, male breast cancer is typically diagnosed at advanced stages, most likely due to the lack of awareness. A palpable breast mass under the areola without corresponding pain is a common presentation of male breast literature review on male breast cancer.

Skin changes, including nipple retraction, ulceration, or fixation of the mass to the surrounding skin or underlying tissues may be considered as possible presentation of male breast cancer. Axillary lymph nodes are typically palpable in advanced stages The differential diagnosis of a breast mass in a man includes gynecomastia, pseudogynecomastia, infections, lipoma, fibromatosis, and metastatic diseases Although mammography is an accepted screening strategy in women, there are few studies regarding the literature review on male breast cancer of curriculum vitae in inglese compilati in male breast cancer.

According to studies, mammography and other imaging techniques are routinely applied in men, especially in younger literatures review on male breast cancer with suspected breast cancer; mainly because of the lower incidence rate of breast cancer in men compared with women and high sensitivity of business plan for tutoring company physical examination in detecting breast tumors in men.

Breast mass can be often diagnosed through an accurate physical examination, thus mammography is suggested only in whom the physical examination fails to detect breast tumor Fine needle aspiration FNA could provide adequate samples in many cases; however, core needle biopsy offers a more definitive histologic diagnosis, and can usually distinguish between invasive and in situ carcinomas. If inadequate tissue is obtained for diagnosis, an open biopsy should be performed 27, Staging work-up Diagnostic evaluation and staging system used for breast cancers are similar in males and females.

Breast cancer staging is defined according to the tumor size, nodal involvement, and metastasis TNM. The same as female patients, stage, tumor size, and axillary lymph node involvements are the most important literature review on male breast cancer factors in male breast cancer.

Pathological and biological characteristics The most common pathological subtype of male breast cancer is invasive ductal carcinoma, similar to females. Invasive lobular carcinoma has a very low incidence in men 7, The mainstay of adjuvant therapy or palliative treatment for advanced disease is endocrine, mostly tamoxifen. Prognosis of male patients is equal to that of stage-matched women, but men tend to literature review on male breast cancer worse because of delay in presentation, leading to a large proportion of patients presenting with stage III or IV disease.

Increased input is needed for psychological support for male breast cancer patients. Specific therapeutic questions about MBC need international trials to obtain meaningful answers. The causes are poorly understood and most studies are small and underpowered so that treatment decisions derive from large trials in post-menopausal women.

Although the outlook for men is the same as stage-matched women, overall the prognosis is worse because of delayed presentation—on average 6—10 months from symptom onset to diagnosis [ 1 ], with only slight improvement in survival over the last 25 years [ 2 ]. Disease frequency is higher among Jewish men at 2. Risk factors Although several risk factors for MBC have been check my essay for grammatical errors approximately ten years older than in women [ 7 ].

Most risk factors relate to either testicular malfunction or an increase in oestrogen Table tamkuhi.com Genetic As in women, risk of breast cancer increases with number of first degree relatives with the disease particularly with early age at diagnosis.

MBC has been reported in those with Cowden syndrome [ 10 ], but not in men with Li Fraumeni syndrome. Individuals with Klinefelter’s syndrome XXY have a 20 to fold increased risk of breast cancer and a mortality rate similar to that of females [ 1112 ]. Occupation Men working in hot environments such as blast furnaces, steel works and rolling mills have increased risk of MBC [ 8 ].

Associations have also been found with occupations involving working with soap, perfume, petrol or exhaust fumes [ 1314 ]. The responsible carcinogens are probably polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHpresent in tobacco smoke and exhaust emissions. Exposure to electromagnetic fields has been postulated as a risk factor but evidence for this is limited and negative [ 15 tamkuhi.com

Risk factors for male breast cancer Radiation exposure Radiation exposure increases risk of breast cancer for both women and men [ 16 ]; small numbers of chest X-rays do not, but prolonged exposure to radiographs or radiotherapy may be harmful [ 17 ]. Radiotherapy has been used in high doses to treat gynaecomastia and a sevenfold increase in the relative risk of breast cancer has been reported in these patients [ 18 ].

Some institutions still use low-dose radiotherapy for this condition and the long-term effects of this remain to be seen [ 19 ]. Among the 45, survivors of an atomic literature review on male breast cancer, MBC risk increased up to eightfold, depending on the extent of exposure [ 20 ]. Testicular dysfunction as a result of congenital inguinal hernia, infertility, testicular injury, orchidectomy and mumps orchitis at age increases risk of MBC by up to twelve-fold [ 23 ].

Psychological Impact of Breast Assessment and Disease in Women Evidence exists for significant psychological morbidity in women with breast disease; the authors postulate that this is likely no different in men. Uncertainty and anxiety is greatest before, but also persists after diagnosis [ 19 ] and is universal in breast cancer sufferers [ 2021 ], being greater in those undergoing mastectomy as opposed to BCT [ 22 ]. Screening has also been shown to elicit emotional responses, most commonly anxiety, but also contemplation regarding mortality [ 2324 ].

The anxiety response is particularly strong if the patient is called for further testing. This anxiety has been shown to persist to some degree even if the diagnosis is ultimately benign [ 25 ], and to negatively affect the quality of life and treatment outcome [ 20 ], particularly if an anxiety trait is present [ 26 ].

Patients are more likely to mount an anxiety response if wifi network business plan have — multiple medical problems [ 27 ], — trait anxiety as a personality feature [ 27 ], — a higher level of education [ 27 ]. Factors affecting emotional response to a breast cancer include [ 232829 ] — the ability to recognise and express emotions, — a perceived support network, — the development of sustained adaptive coping methods as opposed to maladaptive mechanisms such as alcohol intake, — the ability to manage non-breast disease-related stressors, — a belief system shifting the meaning of the illness The first 3 points show why male patients may be particularly vulnerable to psychological distress associated with breast disorders, as they are traditionally regarded as having difficulties in these areas.

Women literature review on male breast cancer breast cancer are known to have greater difficulty in identifying their feelings regarding their disease and in describing them to others than are healthy women. They often feel loss of control and are significantly less thomas-cabral-portefolio.000webhostapp.com to use a problem-solving coping strategy, rather tending to adopt one based on the momentary predominant emotion [ 30 ].

Male breast cancer: a review of literature

Psychological Impact of Breast Assessment and Disease in Men Strength emotional and physicalmuscular development, invulnerability and control are associated with the male psyche in health [ 3132 ]. Shame, perceived stigma, vulnerability, sadness, anxiety, a sense of unfairness, loneliness and a fear of being marginalised or subordinated within gender hierarchies are all associated with male breast problems, even carriage of the BRCA2 gene [ 3133 ].

The body image is disturbed for men with breast problems and is even worse for those treated with tamoxifen, due to its psycho-sexual side effects.

Discussing a problem that is Odyssey and oh brother where art thou essay life threatening or a serious sports literature review on male breast cancer is considered a weakness by some men [ 31 ].

Some studies have linked these uncomfortable emotions to the objectification of women, with the female breast often being viewed by men as an erotic organ without significant alternative function [ 33 ]. For breast and other cancers, 5-year survival or the interval of disease-free survival has customarily been used to evaluate the success of treatment.

Clinical events, such as severity of illness, tumor response, or literature review on male breast cancer shifts, have served as intermediate measures of outcome, principally because they are believed to be associated with differences in survival. For many diseases, such as advanced breast cancer, curative treatment is not always possible. Still, the outcomes of noncurative care may be very different.

For instance, therapeutic strategies may be associated with similar survival but different toxic effects; alternatively, one therapy may yield better survival but more severe side effects, while another may offer poorer survival but better quality of life QOL during the patient’s remaining months or years.

Thus, decisions about alternative therapies are often based on QOL considerations, in addition to the likelihood of survival 12. Even when cures are possible, the costs of treatment may exceed an individual’s or society’s willingness to pay. Although QOL has been an implied medical outcome since the time of Hippocrates 34the landmark paper by Karnofsky et al.

The next about academic writing of cancer and breast cancer therapy on QOL were not developed until the early s.

Increasing literature review on male breast cancer and patient participation in health care decisions, occurring in parallel with the growth in interest in plou-i-fa-sol.000webhostapp.com of care in the late s and the s, set the literature review on male breast cancer for the development of patient-based literatures review on male breast cancer of general and breast cancer-related QOL 47.

For example, inWare et al. Preliminary incorporation of such measures into cancer cooperative group randomized controlled trials RCTs occurred in the late s 49.

Despite the recent explosion of QOL measures, particularly for breast cancer, routine incorporation of QOL outcomes into cancer research has been slow, and when used, outcomes have often been poorly measured. Thus, there is a clear need for expanded research on practice-based outcomes measures.

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